Tuesday, August 14, 2018

School Readiness Skills: Answering Questions

We all know how important it is to read orally to young children. When we share books, in any language, we are modeling fluent reading, including expressive ‘voices,’ proper phrasing, and an appropriate pace. Oral reading supports vocabulary development as children begin to understand that clues to understanding new words can be found in the context of a paragraph and in text features, such as pictures. All of these are necessary components of a child’s future reading success.

But beyond that, we can use the pictures to help give children the idea that we need to use a book (text) to answer questions. This helps children understand the importance of using facts to support our answers. In school, children will be required to answer text-dependent questions. We can help develop this school-ready skill, not to mention that using facts as the basis for responding to questions and forming opinions, helps develop an educated society. 

Here is an example of how you can do this for preschoolers.

From Llama Llama Mad At Mama by Anna Dewdney.
You can easily use the pictures in age-appropriate books to help children respond to questions. In the example picture above, you can ask literal questions like, “What colors are in Llama’s shirt?” After a child answers, you should ask the child to point to the part of the picture that shows the answer is correct. Of course, the child should point to Llama’s shirt.  Literal questions and answers like this are easy to turn into text dependent questions. But, we can and should go beyond the literal level of comprehension.

Ask deeper questions about characters, which are still part of preschoolers' abilities. For example, you might ask, “How is Llama feeling?” This is not a literal question, but it is still possible to use facts from the picture to support a child’s claim. Most children would respond that Llama feels mad. Then ask, “What makes you think that?” Children need to use details from the picture like the look in Llama’s eyes, the shape of Llama’s mouth, or his tongue being out as facts that resulted in them say, “mad.”

Asking all children to support their responses with details from a text is important as it helps everyone develop a sense that facts matter! 

Standards Alignment:
NAEYC - 2.E.
Head Start - VII.A.

Tuesday, August 7, 2018

Yes, Really - Children LOVE Interesting Words!

This was an unusual sight - 

While walking on a dirt road through a forest, we saw a kaleidoscope of butterflies. Yes - a group of butterflies is a kaleidoscope, rabble, or swarm. We used the word, kaleidoscope, as it seemed to give a clear picture of the meaning of the word. When talking with children about this, they became excited about the ever-changing picture of a kaleidoscope and its apt description of the way butterflies can have ever-changing colors as they move. 

Other interesting group names can be shared as children look at photos of various animals. You can elicit engaging conversation and creative thought when you show a group of giraffes. Have children discuss what they might call several giraffes together. Amazingly, some might even come up with the actual word - tower - which is a fun description for these towering animals. 

Here is a brief list of some fascinating animal group names: 

Hedgehogs - Prickle
Ants - Army
Cockroaches - Intrusion
Gulls - Screech
Hyenas - Cackle
Leopards - Leap
Tigers - Ambush

These are just some of the fun and unusual words you can lead children to understand and use. Think of how impressed families will be when children come home with this knowledge! 

But back to our initial photo. Did you notice that this kaleidoscope seemed to be focused on a dead frog? Wow! 

This brings up more scientific vocabulary. Words like carnivore and herbivore can be used when describing photos like this. We often tell children when they use Level 3 (content-area) vocabulary like this, they sound like scientists. We also like to stop the class and applaud or give a finger clap when this type of vocabulary is heard in conversation. You know this will encourage more "big word" use by your children!  

Standards Alignment:

NAEYC - 2.D.04, 2.D. 06, 2.G.07.

Head Start - IV.A., VIII.A., VIII.B.

Tuesday, July 31, 2018

Modeling Helps: Taking Care of Nature!

When did my own concern for the environment begin? I remember it clearly. It was over 50 years ago and I was sitting at a small desk in a classroom. My teacher walked over to the coat closet and pulled out her jacket. She reached into her pocket to show us the trash she had stored in there - things like candy and gum wrappers. She then passionately told us that it was better to keep your trash until you could properly dispose of it. As this was in the early days of a "Do Not Litter" campaign, her words were powerful and meaningful. Since that day so long ago, I have remained committed to picking up trash. 

This little anecdote shows us how words paired with deeds and actions can be influential.  It was my teacher's walk to the closet and her emptying of pockets that made a difference to me. When we want to encourage our children to care for Mother Earth, we can be the models. 

My dad always stopped for turtles on the road. He made sure no other traffic could hurt them as they crossed from one side to another. It will not surprise you to learn that I have carried on this 'tradition." Recently 15 minutes was added to an errand as I stopped for 3 turtles crawling across the roadway. 

Now, I share this with children and show my pictures. I am confident that this modeling will have an impact on their love for nature. 

There are other ways we can encourage care for nature, too. I recently was at a gathering where a very young child began to pull the bark from a birch tree. His mother walked over and kindly explained that the bark was like the tree's skin. The tree needed the bark to protect itself. Later, I heard this same child explaining it to a little girl. The two nodded and agreed the tree needed its bark. 

There are so many ways we adults can be influential in developing a love for the environment in young children. Sometimes children are afraid of animals, like bats. We can sit down and read a book to them about the many ways bats help the world a better place for us by eating insects. Many children are afraid of bees. Discuss with them the importance of bees to plant life on Earth. 

We can make a big difference in the way children view their role on Planet Earth! Pair your words with actions, photos, and books.

Standards Alignment:
NAEYC - 2.G.03.
Head Start - XI.B.1.


Monday, July 23, 2018

Teaching English Language Learners: Thinking About Language

"Put your jumper in the car boot." 

What does that mean? 

Those in Great Britain will understand that someone is being told to put their sweatshirt in the trunk of the car. 

The sentence shows us that even in those countries that share language, terminology can be different. Even the name for the mark at the end of a sentence, a period, can be confusing as in the Commonwealth countries, the term, full stop, is often used. These examples show us that we often need to do a bit of research about the terminology used in those languages spoken by children in our classrooms. Terms can be different or words can mean one thing in one language and something else in another language.

Here are a few examples. A trombone in French is a paperclip. In Norway, the word gift means poison.And Ohio means Good Morning in Japan. Mist is a word for manure in German. You can see how a child from Germany might be confused if you are talking about the weather being misty.

The above words show us that we need to understand the language of all children in our classrooms. This can be true for children from different parts of the country, too. Take a look at this sign: 

This illustrates that children from areas like the upper Midwest can call a soft drink, pop. Those in other areas may say soda while others in the Boston may say tonic. This can be confusing for small children who move to a new area. It will help if those who greet newcomers take a few minutes to learn what terms might be used but confused. 

When we understand our differences, it helps make everyone more comfortable.

Standards Alignment:
NAEYC - 2.D.01 & 03.
Head Start - VIII.A. & B.

Tuesday, July 17, 2018

Teaching Your ELLs: Cognates and Beginning Phonics

As we discussed last week, it is not necessary to know how to speak a second (or third!) language to teach English Language Learners (ELLs). Using 'best practices' of teaching will help you guide your young learners. For many of these ideas, please see last week's post. 

Another concept for you to consider is that of cognates. This is the term we use for words that are used in two or more languages and have the same root language. For example, English and Spanish are both descended from Latin. This means there are many words that are similar. Because pronunciation is different, these words can and do often sound a bit different, but many have enough similarities that children (and families) may feel comfortable seeing the labels in your classroom.

This is an important consideration as you prepare your classrooms or daycare centers for the next school year.  We use these labels to increase awareness of print and to help children begin to associate letters and sounds. When we add Spanish labels, too, this will help all children see the likenesses in the languages. 

This also adds to the sound/symbol awareness and growth for children who are in the emergent stages of literacy. When children speak Spanish and see the Spanish word as a label, they can begin to associate letters with a sound. This helps teach the principle of sound/symbol association. This is a necessary literacy skill. 

It is also a good model for families. When you invite these important adults into your room and they see these labels, they can then be encouraged to label key places and items in their own homes. Additionally, it models to families that using their home language is important and necessary in literacy instruction. You can show families that saying words, in any language, and pointing to the letters, helps children develop sound/symbol relationships. 

So - look at lists of cognates to see if any are helpful to you. But don't stop there. Use the languages spoken by children in your care. Find the terms that your need to label the areas of your room. These are readily available on many Internet sites.  Use these words to not only help your ELLs but all children. English speakers will develop an understanding and appreciation for other languages! Everyone wins! 

Standards Alignment:
NAEYC - 2.D.01 & 03.
Head Start - VIII.A. & B.

Tuesday, July 10, 2018

Best Practices for All Children!

We often hear from teachers that they are ill-equipped to teach English language learners (ELLs). One of the reasons given is their inability to speak another language. While this is helpful, it is not required to be a successful teacher of ELLs. When teaching young ELLs, it is important to keep in mind a few basic principles. And these are not unique to ELLs, but are really ‘best practices’ for all learners.

Speak Clearly
Some of us, speak quickly and with excitement in our voices. I am one of those teachers. But when presenting content, we need to remember that ELLs and many other young children need processing time. Slow down your speech a bit. This helps children think about each word that was said.

Provide Wait Time
Make sure when asking question, you give children plenty of time before you expect an answer. Sometimes you can say, I am going to ask a question. Pause. Then ask the question. Point to your head and say, Lets all think. Children understand that a question will be asked, and they are given time to prepare their answer.

Use Partner Practice
In the above scenario, ask children to whisper their answer to someone sitting next to them. This gives ELLs the chance to practice their English skills before speaking out in front of the class. And remember, when you call on only one child, he or she is the only one getting speaking practice. By asking children to share with a partner, everyone benefits from oral language practice. This extra step helps everyone.

Use Pictures and Objects
When you use pictures or real objects to help children understand vocabulary, this helps them develop the ability to use a variety of methods to learn new words. They become attuned to visual signals and develop this modality as part of their learning repertoire. This means you can use pictures of frogs, videos of frogs, or a model of a frog if reading a book about them. For most children, this also adds excitement and they will be more inclined to become engrossed in the text.

Use Body Language and Facial Expressions
When we show or act out vocabulary, children are more likely to understand what words mean. For example, we can hop like a frog. And, then add to this. Have children hop, too, while saying the word. This type of comprehensible output helps children make meaning. Facial expressions also add understanding. Talking about something sour? Make a face and then have children make this face, too.

As you can see, you already do many of these ‘best practices’ but you may not realize these are important strategies for teaching your ELLs. Just be explicit about what you are doing!

Standards Alignment:
NAEYC - 2.D.01 & 03.
Head Start - VIII.A. & B.

Tuesday, July 3, 2018

Healthy Treats for the 4th!

We hope you enjoy the holiday! Please consider involving your child in the preparation of snacks. See our post at this link - Healthy Holiday Treats.

See you next week!